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In 2020, an NTU team successfully extracted more than 90% of the weight of precious metals in lithium-ion battery waste processed using orange peel waste, and these recovered metals I created a new battery using

This method of extracting precious metals from battery waste using fruit peel waste instead of traditional harsh chemicals and acids is called hydro-organic metallurgy.

Scientists have since replicated the success in the lab using waste skins from other types of fruit, including pineapples, pears and lemon peels.

Fruit peels are rich in sugar, natural antioxidants such as flavonoids and phenolic acids, and organic acids. All of these facilitate the dissolution and recovery of metals from battery waste.

Scientists are currently investigating the possibility of using other types of biomass waste.

Traditionally, used batteries have been treated using highly corrosive solvents.

However, this method also creates dangerous toxic fumes, experts say. Pilot recycling plant uses fruit peels to break down metal waste from lithium batteries

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